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世界で最も絶滅危惧種の多いい楽園、ハワイ。

世界地図、あるいは地球儀を見てください。ハワイ諸島はどの大陸からも遠く離れた、太平洋の真ん中に位置しています。その地理的条件と気象条件は長い年月をかけて固有種の楽園という特殊な環境を作り出しました。ここに根を張ることができた植物たちは、ある意味閉ざされ守られた環境の中で、独自の進化を遂げ、ごく一部を除いてほぼすべてが、ハワイ以外の地域では見ることができない固有種となりました。そんな気象な自然環境は、数世紀前の西洋によるハワイ諸島の発見と近代化の波が押し寄せる時代が到来するまで、永い間守られていたのです。

 

時計の針を現代まで一気に進めてみましょう。現在のハワイの植物環境はどうなっているのか...、その現実はあまりにもドラスティックです。かつて存在した植物の半数はすでにこの地球から姿を消してしまいました。さらに、生き残った固有種たちも、年々10%ほどの割合で絶滅してしまっているという悲しい現実があります。今、ハワイは地球上の『絶滅危惧種の宝庫』という不名誉な称号まで与えられています。事実アメリカ全土に存在する絶滅危惧種の40%がハワイの植物で、その数なんと368種(2015年調査)。この小さな諸島が、世界で最も絶滅危惧種が多い場所となってしまっているのです。

 

森を“Wao Akua”(神の領域)と信じ、森の植物に宿る女神ラカをフラの守護神として崇め、祈りとともに植物を摘み、その“Mana”(パワー)の恩恵を受けてきた先住民族であるハワイアンの教えに、今一度立ち返ることで、現代の我々には学ぶべき大切なことが多く見つかることでしょう。

448種、これはハワイ固有種1400種のうち絶滅危惧種と認定された数です。

〔USFWSによる認定数/2015年現在〕

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the list

The numbers of USFWS Endangered Species:

400- Federal Endangered

39- Federal Proposed Endangered

9- Federal Threatened

 

The IUCN Red List:

169- Critically Rare

63- Endangered

51- Vulnerable

8- Extinct in the Wild

22- Extinct

15- Least Rare/Non-Threatened/Least Concern

 

368 listing Plants

Species/Listing Name

 

âÄòakuâÄòaku (Cyanea platyphylla)

A`e (Zanthoxylum dipetalum var. tomentosum)

A`e (Zanthoxylum hawaiiense)

A`e (Zanthoxylum oahuense)

`Ahinahina (Argyroxiphium sandwicense ssp. macrocephalum)

`Ahinahina (Argyroxiphium sandwicense ssp. sandwicense)

`Aiakeakua, popolo (Solanum sandwicense)

`Aiea (Nothocestrum breviflorum)

`Aiea (Nothocestrum peltatum)

`Akoko (Euphorbia celastroides var. kaenana)

`Akoko (Euphorbia deppeana)

`Akoko (Euphorbia eleanoriae)

`Akoko (Euphorbia haeleeleana)

`Akoko (Euphorbia herbstii)

`Akoko (Euphorbia kuwaleana)

`Akoko (Euphorbia remyi var. kauaiensis)

`Akoko (Euphorbia remyi var. remyi)

`Akoko (Euphorbia rockii)

'Akoko (Euphorbia halemanui)

`Akoko, Ewa Plains (Euphorbia skottsbergii var. skottsbergii)

`aku (Cyanea tritomantha)

`Ala `ala wai nui (Peperomia subpetiolata)

Alani (Melicope adscendens)

Alani (Melicope balloui)

Alani (Melicope christophersenii)

Alani (Melicope degeneri)

Alani (Melicope haupuensis)

Alani (Melicope hiiakae)

Alani (Melicope knudsenii)

Alani (Melicope lydgatei)

Alani (Melicope makahae)

Alani (Melicope mucronulata)

Alani (Melicope munroi)

Alani (Melicope ovalis)

Alani (Melicope pallida)

Alani (Melicope paniculata)

Alani (Melicope puberula)

Alani (Melicope quadrangularis)

Alani (Melicope reflexa)

Alani (Melicope saint-johnii)

Alani (Melicope zahlbruckneri)

`Anaunau (Lepidium arbuscula)

`Anunu (Sicyos albus)

aumakua, Palapalai (Dryopteris crinalis var. podosorus)

Aupaka (Isodendrion hosakae)

Aupaka (Isodendrion laurifolium)

Aupaka (Isodendrion longifolium)

`Awikiwiki (Canavalia molokaiensis)

`Awikiwiki (Canavalia napaliensis)

`Awikiwiki (Canavalia pubescens)

Awiwi (Centaurium sebaeoides)

'Awiwi (Kadua cookiana)

Bluegrass, Hawaiian (Poa sandvicensis)

Bluegrass, Mann's (Poa mannii)

Chaff-flower, round-leaved (Achyranthes splendens var. rotundata)

diellia, Asplenium-leaved (Diellia erecta)

Fern, pendant kihi (Adenophorus periens)

Gardenia (=Na`u), Hawaiian (Gardenia brighamii)

Geranium, Hawaiian red-flowered (Geranium arboreum)

Haha (Cyanea acuminata)

Haha (Cyanea asarifolia)

Haha (Cyanea asplenifolia)

Haha (Cyanea calycina)

Haha (Cyanea copelandii ssp. copelandii)

Haha (Cyanea copelandii ssp. haleakalaensis)

haha (Cyanea crispa)

Haha (Cyanea dolichopoda)

Haha (Cyanea dunbarii)

Haha (Cyanea eleeleensis)

Haha (Cyanea glabra)

Haha (Cyanea grimesiana ssp. grimesiana)

Haha (Cyanea grimesiana ssp. obatae)

Haha (Cyanea hamatiflora ssp. carlsonii)

Haha (Cyanea hamatiflora ssp. hamatiflora)

Haha (Cyanea humboldtiana)

Haha (Cyanea kolekoleensis)

Haha (Cyanea koolauensis)

Haha (Cyanea kuhihewa)

Haha (Cyanea kunthiana)

Haha (Cyanea lanceolata)

Haha (Cyanea lobata)

Haha (Cyanea longiflora)

Haha (Cyanea macrostegia ssp. gibsonii)

Haha (Cyanea mannii)

Haha (Cyanea marksii)

Haha (Cyanea mceldowneyi)

Haha (Cyanea obtusa)

Haha (Cyanea pinnatifida)

Haha (Cyanea procera)

Haha (Cyanea recta)

Haha (Cyanea remyi)

Haha (Cyanea rivularis)

Haha (Cyanea shipmanii)

Haha (Cyanea stictophylla)

Haha (Cyanea st.-johnii)

Haha (Cyanea superba)

Haha (Cyanea truncata)

Haha (Cyanea undulata)

Haiwale (Cyrtandra paliku)

Ha`iwale (Cyrtandra crenata)

Ha`iwale (Cyrtandra dentata)

Ha`iwale (Cyrtandra filipes)

Ha`iwale (Cyrtandra giffardii)

Ha`iwale (Cyrtandra kaulantha)

Ha`iwale (Cyrtandra limahuliensis)

Ha`iwale (Cyrtandra munroi)

Ha`iwale (Cyrtandra oenobarba)

Ha`iwale (Cyrtandra oxybapha)

Ha`iwale (Cyrtandra polyantha)

Ha`iwale (Cyrtandra sessilis)

Ha`iwale (Cyrtandra subumbellata)

Ha`iwale (Cyrtandra tintinnabula)

Ha`iwale (Cyrtandra viridiflora)

Hala pepe (Pleomele fernaldii)

Hala pepe (Pleomele forbesii)

Hala pepe (Pleomele hawaiiensis)

Hau kuahiwi (Hibiscadelphus giffardianus)

Hau kuahiwi (Hibiscadelphus hualalaiensis)

Hau kuahiwi (Hibiscadelphus woodii)

Heau (Exocarpos luteolus)

Hibiscus, Clay's (Hibiscus clayi)

Ho`awa (Pittosporum napaliense)

Holei (Ochrosia kilaueaensis)

Honohono (Haplostachys haplostachya)

Hulumoa (Korthalsella degeneri)

Ihi`ihi (Marsilea villosa)

Iliau, dwarf (Wilkesia hobdyi)

Ischaemum, Hilo (Ischaemum byrone)

Kamakahala (Labordia cyrtandrae)

Kamakahala (Labordia helleri)

Kamakahala (Labordia lydgatei)

Kamakahala (Labordia pumila)

Kamakahala (Labordia tinifolia var. lanaiensis)

Kamakahala (Labordia tinifolia var. wahiawaensis)

Kamakahala (Labordia triflora)

Kamanomano (Cenchrus agrimonioides)

Kauai hau kuahiwi (Hibiscadelphus distans)

Kauila (Colubrina oppositifolia)

Kaulu (Pteralyxia kauaiensis)

Kaulu (Pteralyxia macrocarpa)

Kio`ele (Kadua coriacea)

Kiponapona (Phyllostegia racemosa)

Kohe malama malama o kanaloa (Kanaloa kahoolawensis)

Koholapehu (Dubautia latifolia)

Koki`o (Kokia drynarioides)

Koki`o (Kokia kauaiensis)

Koki`o, Cooke's (Kokia cookei)

Koki`o ke`oke`o (Hibiscus arnottianus ssp. immaculatus)

Koki`o ke`oke`o (Hibiscus waimeae ssp. hannerae)

Kolea (Myrsine juddii)

Kolea (Myrsine knudsenii)

Kolea (Myrsine linearifolia)

Kolea (Myrsine mezii)

Kolea (Myrsine vaccinioides)

Ko`oko`olau (Bidens amplectens)

Ko`oko`olau (Bidens campylotheca pentamera)

Ko`oko`olau (Bidens campylotheca waihoiensis)

Ko`oko`olau (Bidens conjuncta)

Ko`oko`olau (Bidens micrantha ctenophylla)

Ko`oko`olau (Bidens micrantha ssp. kalealaha)

Ko`oko`olau (Bidens wiebkei)

Ko`oloa`ula (Abutilon menziesii)

Kopa (Hedyotis schlechtendahliana var. remyi)

Kopiko (Psychotria grandiflora)

Kopiko (Psychotria hobdyi)

Kuahiwi laukahi (Plantago hawaiensis)

Kuahiwi laukahi (Plantago princeps)

Kuawawaenohu (Schiedea lychnoides)

Kula wahine noho (Isodendrion pyrifolium)

Kulu`i (Nototrichium humile)

Lau `ehu (Panicum niihauense)

Laulihilihi (Schiedea stellarioides)

lehua makanoe (Lysimachia daphnoides)

Liliwai (Acaena exigua)

Lo`ulu (Pritchardia kaalae)

Lo`ulu (Pritchardia lanigera)

Lo`ulu (Pritchardia maideniana)

Lo`ulu (Pritchardia munroi)

Lo`ulu (Pritchardia napaliensis)

Lo`ulu (Pritchardia remota)

Lo`ulu (Pritchardia schattaueri)

Lo`ulu (Pritchardia viscosa)

Lo`ulu, (=Na`ena`e) (Pritchardia hardyi)

Love grass, Fosberg's (Eragrostis fosbergii)

Mahoe (Alectryon macrococcus)

Makou (Peucedanum sandwicense)

Ma`o hau hele, (=native yellow hibiscus) (Hibiscus brackenridgei)

Ma`oli`oli (Schiedea apokremnos)

Ma`oli`oli (Schiedea hawaiiensis)

Ma`oli`oli (Schiedea kealiae)

Mapele (Cyrtandra cyaneoides)

Mehamehame (Flueggea neowawraea)

Naenae (Dubautia kalalauensis)

Naenae (Dubautia kenwoodii)

Na`ena`e (Dubautia herbstobatae)

Na`ena`e (Dubautia imbricata imbricata)

Na`ena`e (Dubautia pauciflorula)

Na`ena`e (Dubautia plantaginea magnifolia)

Na`ena`e (Dubautia plantaginea ssp. humilis)

Na`ena`e (Dubautia waialealae)

Nani wai`ale`ale (Viola kauaiensis var. wahiawaensis)

Nanu (Gardenia mannii)

Naupaka, dwarf (Scaevola coriacea)

Nehe (Lipochaeta fauriei)

Nehe (Lipochaeta kamolensis)

Nehe (Lipochaeta lobata var. leptophylla)

Nehe (Lipochaeta micrantha)

Nehe (Lipochaeta waimeaensis)

Nehe (Melanthera tenuifolia)

Nioi (Eugenia koolauensis)

No common name (Abutilon eremitopetalum)

No common name (Abutilon sandwicense)

No common name (Achyranthes mutica)

No common name (Amaranthus brownii)

No common name (Asplenium dielfalcatum)

No common name (Asplenium dielmannii)

No common name (Asplenium dielpallidum)

No common name (Asplenium fragile insulare)

No common name (Asplenium unisorum)

No common name (Bonamia menziesii)

No common name (Cyanea profuga)

No common name (Cyanea purpurellifolia)

No common name (Cyperus fauriei)

No common name (Cyperus pennatiformis)

No common name (Cyrtandra gracilis)

No common name (Cyrtandra waiolani)

No common name (Delissea rhytidosperma)

No common name (Delissea undulata)

No common name (Diplazium molokaiense)

No common name (Doryopteris angelica)

No common name (Doryopteris takeuchii)

No common name (Gouania hillebrandii)

No common name (Gouania meyenii)

No common name (Gouania vitifolia)

No common name (Hesperomannia arborescens)

No common name (Hesperomannia arbuscula)

No common name (Hesperomannia lydgatei)

No common name (Kadua degeneri)

No common name (Kadua parvula)

No common name (Kadua st.-johnii)

No common name (Keysseria (=Lagenifera) erici)

No common name (Keysseria (=Lagenifera) helenae)

No common name (Lipochaeta venosa)

No common name (Lobelia koolauensis)

No common name (Lobelia monostachya)

No common name (Lobelia niihauensis)

No common name (Lobelia oahuensis)

No common name (Lysimachia filifolia)

No common name (Lysimachia iniki)

No common name (Lysimachia lydgatei)

No common name (Lysimachia maxima)

No common name (Lysimachia pendens)

No common name (Lysimachia scopulensis)

No common name (Lysimachia venosa)

No common name (Neraudia angulata)

No common name (Neraudia ovata)

No common name (Neraudia sericea)

No common name (Phyllostegia bracteata)

No common name (Phyllostegia floribunda)

No common name (Phyllostegia glabra var. lanaiensis)

No common name (Phyllostegia hirsuta)

No common name (Phyllostegia hispida)

No common name (Phyllostegia kaalaensis)

No common name (Phyllostegia knudsenii)

No common name (Phyllostegia mannii)

No common name (Phyllostegia mollis)

No common name (Phyllostegia parviflora)

No common name (Phyllostegia renovans)

No common name (Phyllostegia velutina)

No common name (Phyllostegia waimeae)

No common name (Phyllostegia warshaueri)

No common name (Phyllostegia wawrana)

No common name (Pittosporum halophilum)

No common name (Pittosporum hawaiiense)

No common name (Platanthera holochila)

No common name (Platydesma cornuta cornuta)

No common name (Platydesma cornuta decurrens)

No common name (Platydesma remyi)

No common name (Poa siphonoglossa)

No common name (Polyscias bisattenuata)

No common name (Polyscias flynnii)

No common name (Polyscias lydgatei)

No common name (Polyscias racemosa)

No common name (Pteris lidgatei)

No common name (Remya kauaiensis)

No common name (Remya montgomeryi)

No common name (Sanicula mariversa)

No common name (Sanicula purpurea)

No common name (Schiedea attenuata)

No common name (Schiedea haleakalensis)

No common name (Schiedea helleri)

No common name (Schiedea hookeri)

No common name (Schiedea kaalae)

No common name (Schiedea kauaiensis)

No common name (Schiedea lydgatei)

No common name (Schiedea membranacea)

No common name (Schiedea nuttallii)

No common name (Schiedea obovata)

No common name (Schiedea salicaria)

No common name (Schiedea sarmentosa)

No common name (Schiedea spergulina var. leiopoda)

No common name (Schiedea spergulina var. spergulina)

No common name (Schiedea trinervis)

No common name (Schiedea verticillata)

No common name (Schiedea viscosa)

No common name (Silene alexandri)

No common name (Silene hawaiiensis)

No common name (Silene lanceolata)

No common name (Silene perlmanii)

No common name (Spermolepis hawaiiensis)

No common name (Stenogyne angustifolia angustifolia)

No common name (Stenogyne bifida)

No common name (Stenogyne campanulata)

No common name (Stenogyne cranwelliae)

No common name (Stenogyne kanehoana)

No common name (Stenogyne kealiae)

No common name (Tetramolopium arenarium)

No common name (Tetramolopium filiforme)

No common name (Tetramolopium lepidotum ssp. lepidotum)

No common name (Tetramolopium remyi)

No common name (Tetramolopium rockii)

No common name (Trematolobelia singularis)

No common name (Vigna o-wahuensis)

No common name (Viola helenae)

No common name (Viola lanaiensis)

No common name (Viola oahuensis)

No common name (Wikstroemia villosa)

No common name (Xylosma crenatum)

Nohoanu (Geranium hanaense)

Nohoanu (Geranium hillebrandii)

Nohoanu (Geranium kauaiense)

Nohoanu (Geranium multiflorum)

Oha (Delissea subcordata)

Ohai (Sesbania tomentosa)

`Oha wai (Clermontia drepanomorpha)

`Oha wai (Clermontia lindseyana)

`Oha wai (Clermontia oblongifolia ssp. brevipes)

`Oha wai (Clermontia oblongifolia ssp. mauiensis)

`Oha wai (Clermontia peleana)

`Oha wai (Clermontia pyrularia)

`Oha wai (Clermontia samuelii)

`Ohe`ohe (Polyscias gymnocarpa)

Olulu (Brighamia insignis)

Opuhe (Urera kaalae)

Pa`iniu (Astelia waialealae)

Pamakani (Tetramolopium capillare)

Pamakani (Viola chamissoniana ssp. chamissoniana)

Panicgrass, Carter's (Panicum fauriei var. carteri)

Papala (Charpentiera densiflora)

Pauoa (Ctenitis squamigera)

Pilo (Hedyotis mannii)

Pilo kea lau li`i (Platydesma rostrata)

Po`e (Portulaca sclerocarpa)

Popolo (Cyanea solanacea)

Popolo ku mai (Solanum incompletum)

Pua `ala (Brighamia rockii)

Pu`uka`a (Cyperus trachysanthos)

Reedgrass, Hillegrand's (Calamagrostis hillebrandii)

Remya, Maui (Remya mauiensis)

Sandalwood, Lanai (=`iliahi) (Santalum haleakalae var. lanaiense)

Schiedea, Diamond Head (Schiedea adamantis)

Silversword, Mauna Loa (=Ka'u) (Argyroxiphium kauense)

Uhi uhi (Mezoneuron kavaiense)

Vetch, Hawaiian (Vicia menziesii)

Wahane (Pritchardia aylmer-robinsonii)

Wawae`iole (Huperzia mannii)

Wawae`iole (Huperzia nutans)

wild coffee, Oahu (=kopiko) (Psychotria hexandra ssp. oahuensis)

data: 02/13/2015

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